Selected Publications


Geographies of the Holocaust BookGeographies of the Holocaust

Edited by Anne Kelly Knowles, Tim Cole, and Alberto Giordano
Indiana University Press, 2014

This book explores the geographies of the Holocaust at every scale of human experience, from the European continent to the experiences of individual human bodies. Built on six innovative case studies, it brings together historians and geographers to interrogate the places and spaces of the genocide. The cases encompass the landscapes of particular places (the killing zones in the East, deportations from sites in Italy, the camps of Auschwitz, the ghettos of Budapest) and the intimate spaces of bodies on evacuation marches. Geographies of the Holocaust puts forward models and a research agenda for different ways of visualizing and thinking about the Holocaust by examining the spaces and places where it was enacted and experienced.

Table of content:

  1. Geographies of the Holocaust. Alberto Giordano, Anne Kelly Knowles, and Tim Cole
  2. Mapping the SS Concentration Camps. Anne Kelly Knowles and Paul B. Jaskot, with Benjamin Perry Blackshear, Michael De Groot, and Alexander Yule
  3.  Retracing the “Hunt for Jews”: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Arrests during the Holocaust in Italy. Alberto Giordano and Anna Holian
  4. Killing on the Ground and in the Mind: The Spatialities of Genocide in the East. Waitman W. Beorn, with Anne Kelly Knowles
  5. Bringing the Ghetto to the Jew: The Shifting Geography of the Budapest Ghetto. Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano
  6. Visualizing the Archive: Building at Auschwitz as a Geographic Problem. Paul B. Jaskot, Anne Kelly Knowles, and Chester Harvey, with Benjamin Perry Blackshear
  7. From the Camp to the Road: Representing the Evacuations from Auschwitz, January 1945. Simone Gigliotti, Marc J. Masurovsky, and Erik Steiner
  8. Afterword. Paul B. Jaskot and Tim Cole

Holocaust Landscapes

Holocaust Landscapes

Tim Cole
Bloomsbury, 2016

Holocaust Landscapes is a book of genuine originality and imagination. The theme is the places of the Holocaust, the Holocaust as place-making event for both perpetrators and victims. Through special concepts such as distance and proximity, Professor Tim Cole tells the story of the Holocaust through a number of landscapes where genocide was implemented, experienced, and evaded--many of which have subsequently been forgotten in the post war world. Drawing on survivor's narratives, Holocaust Landscapes moves between a series of ordinary and extraordinary places and the people who inhabited them throughout the years of the Second World War.
Starting in Germany in the late 1930s, the book shifts chronologically and geographically westwards, ending in Germany in the final chaotic months of the war. These landscapes range from the most iconic (synagogue, ghetto, railroad, camp, attic) to less well known sites (forest, sea mountain, river, road, and displaced persons camp). Holocaust Landscapes provides a new perspective surrounding the shifting geographies and stories of this dark period in world history.


The train journey

The Train Journey. Transit, Captivity, and Witnessing in the Holocaust

Simone Gigliotti
Berghan Books, 2009

Deportations by train were critical in the Nazis’ genocidal vision of the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Historians have estimated that between 1941 and 1944 up to three million Jews were transported to their deaths in concentration and extermination camps. In his writings on the “Final Solution,” Raul Hilberg pondered the role of trains: “How can railways be regarded as anything more than physical equipment that was used, when the time came, to transport the Jews from various cities to shooting grounds and gas chambers in Eastern Europe?” This book explores the question by analyzing the victims’ experiences at each stage of forced relocation: the round-ups and departures from the ghettos, the captivity in trains, and finally, the arrival at the camps. Utilizing a variety of published memoirs and unpublished testimonies, the book argues that victims experienced the train journeys as mobile chambers, comparable in importance to the more studied, fixed locations of persecution, such as ghettos and camps.
This book is available open access online


Traces of the Holocaust

Traces of the Holocaust. Journeying in and out of the Ghettos

Tim Cole
Bloomsbury, 2011

'The universe began shrinking,' wrote Elie Wiesel of his Holocaust experiences in Hungary, 'first we were supposed to leave our towns and concentrate in the larger cities. Then the towns shrank to the ghetto, and the ghetto to a house, the house to a room, the room to a cattle car...' Adopting an innovative multi-perspectival approach framed around a wide variety of material traces - from receipts to maps, name lists to photographs - Tim Cole tells stories of journeys into and out of Hungarian ghettos. These stories of the perpetrators who oversaw ghettoization and deportation, the bystanders who witnessed and aided these journeys, and the victims who undertook them reveal the spatio-temporal dimensions of the Holocaust. But they also point to the visibility of these events within the ordinary spaces of the city, the importance of an economic assault on Jews and the marked gendering of the Holocaust in Hungary.


Holocaust City

Holocaust City. The Making of a Jewish Ghetto

Tim Cole
Routledge, 2003

Drawing from the ideas of critical geography and based on extensive archival research, Cole brilliantly reconstructs the formation of the Jewish ghetto during the Holocaust, focusing primarily on the ghetto in Budapest, Hungary--one of the largest created during the war, but rarely examined. Cole maps the city illustrating how spaces--cafes, theaters, bars, bathhouses--became divided in two. Throughout the book, Cole discusses how the creation of this Jewish ghetto, just like the others being built across occupied Europe, tells us a great deal about the nature of Nazism, what life was like under Nazi-occupation, and the role the ghetto actually played in the Final Solution.


The Architecture of Oppression

The Architecture of Oppression. The SS, Forced Labor and the Nazi Monumental Building Economy

Paul B. Jaskot
Routledge, 2000

This book re-evaluates the architectural history of Nazi Germany and looks at the development of the forced-labour concentration camp system. Through an analysis of such major Nazi building projects as the Nuremberg Party Rally Grounds and the rebuilding of Berlin, Jaskot ties together the development of the German building economy, state architectural goals and the rise of the SS as a political and economic force. As a result, The Architecture of Oppression contributes to our understanding of the conjunction of culture and politics in the Nazi period as well as the agency of architects and SS administrators in enabling this process.

Lessons and Legacies XIV

The Holocaust in the 21st Century:
Relevance and Challenges in the Digital Age
Lessons and Legacies XIV

Edited and with an introduction by Simone Gigliotti and Tim Cole

Northwestern University Press, 2020


Lessons and Legacies XIII

New Approaches to an Integrated History of the Holocaust:
Social History, Representation, Theory
Lessons and Legacies XIII

Edited and with an introduction by Alexandra Garbarini and Paul B. Jaskot

Northwestern University Press, 2018


Space In Holocaust Reseach Book cover

How Can We Map the Holocaust?

Anne Kelly Knowles

In Space in Holocaust Research       
Edited by Janine Fubel , Alexandra Klei and Annika Wienert      
DeGruyter, 2024


Space In Holocaust Reseach Book cover

Daily Experiences of Persecution in the City: Mobilizing Diaries to Study the Holocaust in Urban Settings

Maël Le Noc

In Space in Holocaust Research       
Edited by Janine Fubel , Alexandra Klei and Annika Wienert      
DeGruyter, 2024


On the Social History of Persecution book cover

Space and place: Placing everyday life during the Holocaust

Tim Cole

In On the Social History of Persecution       
Edited by Christian Gerlach      
DeGruyter, 2023


Places Spaces and Voids in the Holocaust

Thinking Spatially about the Holocaust

Tim Cole and Anne K. Knowles

In Places, Spaces, and Voids in the Holocaust      
European Holocaust Studies; Vol. 3      
Edited by Natalia Aleksiun and Hana Kubátová      
Wallstein, 2021


Sage Handbook of Historical Geography

Geography and the Holocaust

Anne K. Knowles

In The SAGE Handbook of Historical Geography      
Edited by Mona Domosh, Michael Heffernan and Charles W. J. Withers      
SAGE Publications, 2020


Lessons and Legacies XIV

Mind the Gap: Reading Across the Holocaust Testimonial Archive

Anne K. Knowles, Paul B. Jaskot, Tim Cole, and Alberto Giordano

In Lessons and Legacies XIV: The Holocaust in the 21st Century: Relevance and Challenges in the Digital Age      
Edited by Simone Gigliotti and Tim Cole      
Northwestern University Press, 2020


Palgrave Handbook on Holocaust Literature and culture

Photographing survival: Survivor photographs of, and at, Auschwitz

Tim Cole

In Palgrave Handbook on Holocaust Literature and Culture      
Edited by Victoria Aarons and Phyllis Lassner      
Palgrave Macmillan, 2020


A companion to the Holocaust

Geographies of the Holocaust

Tim Cole

In A Companion to the Holocaust      
Edited by Hilary Earl and Simone Gigliotti      
Wiley Blackwell, 2020



Placing the Ghetto: Warsaw and Budapest, 1939-1945

Tim Cole

In Polin. Studies in Polish Jewry 31. Poland and Hungary: Jewish Realities Compared      
Edited by François Guesnet, Howard Lupovitch, and Antony Polonsky      
Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2019


The Ghetto in Global History

When (and why) is a Ghetto not a “Ghetto”? Concentrating and Segregating Jews in Budapest 1944

Tim Cole

In The Ghetto in Global History, 1500 to the Present       
Edited by Wendy Z. Goldman and Joe William Trotter, Jr.      
Routledge, 2018      

Remembering the Second World War

Touching Landscapes: Embodied Experiences of Holocaust Tourism and Memory

Tim Cole

In Remembering the Second World War      
Edited by Patrick Finney      
Routledge, 2017


Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture

Interview with Anne Knowles, Tim Cole, Alberto Giordano, and Paul B. Jaskot, Contributing Authors of Geographies of the Holocaust

Interview by Claudio Fogu and Todd Presner

In Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture      
Edited by Claudio Fogu, Wulf Kansteiner and Todd Presner      
Harvard University Press, 2016      

Hitler's Geographies

Geographies of Ghettoization: Absences, Presences and Boundaries

Tim Cole

In Hitler's Geographies: The Spatialities of the Third Reich      
Edited by Paolo Giaccaria and Claudio Minca      
Chicago University Press, 2016


Zalc Microhistories

Microhistories, Microgeographies: Budapest, 1944 and Scales of Analysis

Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano

In Microhistories of the Holocaust      
Edited by Claire Zalc and Tal Bruttmann      
Berghahn Books, 2016


Lessons and Legacies XI

Rethinking Segregation in the Ghetto: Invisible Walls and Social Networks in the Dispersed Ghetto in Budapest, 1944

Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano

In Lessons and Legacies XI: Expanding Perspectives on the Holocaust in a Changing World      
Edited by Hilary Earl and Karl A. Schleunes      
Northwestern University Press, 2014



Jenseits der Ideologie: Das Zusammenwirken von Architektur und Politik im Deutschland des Jahres 1938

Paul B. Jaskot

In 1938: Kunst, Künstler, Politik      
Edited by Eva Atlan, Raphael Gross and Juliet Voss      
Wallstein Verlag, 2013

Le Noc, M. and E. Sarmiento, 2023. ‘We were turned into Jews’: space, subjectivation, and resistance in occupied Paris. Social & Cultural Geography 24(2), pp. 363-379.

Giordano, A., Cole, T. and Le Noc, M. 2022. Spatial Social Networks for the Humanities: A Visualization and Analytical Model. Transactions in GIS 26(4), pp. 1683-1702.

Cole, T. and Giordano, A. 2022. Geographies of Holocaust rescue: Spatial patterns and social geographies of Jewish rescue in Budapest, 1944. Journal of Historical Geography 71, pp. 63-72.

Le Noc, M. 2021. Présences, proximités et disparitions. Une approche spatiale de la persécution des Juifs à Paris 1940-1944. Histoire Urbaine 62, pp. 15-36.

Westerveld, L. and A.K. Knowles. 2020. Loosening the grid: topology as the basis for a more inclusive GIS. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Advance online publication.

Cole, T. 2020. Expanding (Environmental) Histories of the HolocaustJournal of Genocide Research 22(2), pp. 273-279.

Knowles, A.K. and Hillebrand, J. with Jaskot, P.B. and Walke, A. 2020. Integrative, Interdisciplinary Database Design for the Spatial Humanities: the Case of the Holocaust Ghettos ProjectInternational Journal of Humanities and Arts, 14(1-2), pp. 64-80.

Le Noc, M., Giordano, A., and Cole T. 2020. The Geography of the Holocaust in Italy: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Arrests for Families and Individuals and a Conceptual Model. The Professional Geographer 72(4), pp. 575-585.

Giordano, A. and Cole, T., 2020. Places of the Holocaust: Towards a Model of a GIS of Place. Transactions in GIS, 24(4), pp 842-857.

Cole, T., and Harman, T. 2019. Geographies of the Holocaust: Experiments in GIS, QSR and Graph Representations. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing 13(1-2), pp. 39-52.

Giordano A. and Cole, T. 2018. The Limits of Representation: Towards a GIS of Place. Transactions in GIS, 22(3), pp 664-676.

Walke, A. 2018. Split Memory: The Geography of Holocaust Memory and Amnesia in Belarus. Slavic Review 77(1), pp 174-197.

Cole, T. 2018. Following The Rough Guide to Gora Kalwaria: Constructing Memory Tourism of Absence in Post-Communist Poland, Journal of War and Culture Studies 11(3), pp. 255-68.

Jaskot, P.B. and van der Graaff, I., 2017. Historical Journals as Digital Sources: Mapping Architecture in Germany, 1914–24. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 76(4), pp. 483-505.

Jaskot, P.B., 2017. Commentary: Art-Historical Questions, Geographic Concepts, and Digital Methods. Historical Geography, 45, pp. 92-99.

Burleson, S. and Giordano, A., 2015. Extending Metadata Standards for Historical GIS Research: A Case Study of the Holocaust in Budapest and the Armenian Genocide in Turkey. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research (IJAGR), 6(4), pp.88-109.

Knowles, A., Westerveld, L., and Strom, L., 2015. Inductive Visualization: A Humanistic Alternative to GIS. GeoHumanities 1(2), pp. 233-265.

Jaskot, P.B., Knowles, A.K., Wasserman, A., Whiteman, S. and Zweig, B., 2015. A Research-Based Model for Digital Mapping and Art History: Notes from the Field. Artl@ s Bulletin, 4(1), pp. 66-74.

Cole, T., 2015. (Re)Placing the Past: Spatial Strategies of Retelling Difficult Stories. Oral History Review, 42(1), pp.30-49.

Cole, T., 2014. “Nature Was Helping Us”: Forests, Trees, and Environmental Histories of the Holocaust. Environmental History, 19(4), pp.665-686.

Jaskot, P.B.  2014. Building the Nazi Economy: Adam Tooze and a Cultural Critique of Hitler’s Plans for War. Historical Materialism 22(3-4), pp. 312-329.

Cole, T., 2013. Holocaust roadscapes: Retracing the" death marches" in contemporary Europe. Cahiers de géographie du Québec, 57(162), pp.445-459.

Giordano, A. and Cole, T., 2011. On place and space: Calculating social and spatial networks in the Budapest Ghetto. Transactions in GIS, 15(s1), pp.143-170.

Beorn, W., Cole, T., Gigliotti, S., Giordano, A., Holian, A., Jaskot, P.B., Knowles, A.K., Masurovsky, M. and Steiner, E.B., 2010. Geographies of the Holocaust. Geographical Review, 99(4), pp. 563-574.

Jaskot, P. and Knowles, A. 2017. Architecture and Maps, Databases and Archives: An Approach to Institutional History and the Built Environment in Nazi Germany. The Iris: Behind the Scenes at the Getty.

Knowles, A., 2016. A More Humane Approach to Digital Scholarship. Parameters: Knowledge Under Digital Conditions, Social Science Research Council.

Walke, A., 2015. When everywhere is a grave: remembering WWII casualties in BelarusOxford University Press Blog.


I Was There: Places of Experience in the Holocaust

Levi Westerveld and Anne K. Knowles

In Atlas of Design, vol. V
Edited by Caroline Rose, Brooke Marston, Vanessa Knoppke-Wetzel and Nat Case
NACIS, 2020

A version of this map is also available online at

For more publications from members of the collective, follow the "List of publications" links on the "People" page.